Advertising Principles - Evidence-based principles

References for persuasive advertising principles

The following references were used to create, test, and illustrate principles. The articles can be accessed on the Internet by inserting the title of the paper, while the books can be accessed via Amazon. (Scott Armstrong’s papers can be accessed by clicking on the titles.)


Abernethy, Avery M. & George R. Franke (1996), “ The information content of advertising:.A Glossary Link meta-analysis,” Journal of Advertising, 25 (2), 1-17.

Abernethy, Avery M. & David N. Laband (2004), “The impact of trademarks and advertisement size on Yellow Pages call rates,” Journal of Advertising Research, 44 (1), 119-125.

Adams, Henry F. (1916), Advertising and Its Mental Laws. New York: Macmillan.

Adaval, Rashmi & Robert S. Wyer, Jr. (1998), “The role of narratives in consumer information processing,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7 (3), 207-245.

Ahearne, Michael, Thomas Gruen & M. Kim Saxton (2000), “When the product is complex, does the advertisement’s conclusion matter?” Journal of Business Research, 48, 55-62.

Aiken, Milam & Mahesh B. Vanjani (2003), “Comment distribution in electronic poolwriting and gallery writing meetings,” Communications of the International Information Management Association, 3 (2), 17-36.

Alba, Joseph W. & Howard Marmorstein (1987), “The effects of frequency knowledge on consumer decision making,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (1), 14-25.

Allen, Mike (1991), “Meta-analysis comparing the persuasiveness of one-sided and two-sided messages,” Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55 (4), 390-404.

Allen, Mike & Raymond W. Preiss (1997), “Comparing the persuasiveness of narrative and statistical evidence using meta-analysis,” Communication Research Reports, 14 (2), 125-131.

Allison, Ralph I. & Kenneth P. Uhl (1964), “Influence of beer brand identification on taste perception,” Journal of Marketing Research, 1 (3), 36-39.

Alpert, Mark I., Judy I. Alpert & Elliot Matlz (2005), “Purchase occasion influence on the role of music in advertising,” Journal of Business Research, 58, 369-376.

Anderson, Carol H. (1986), “Will U.S. companies substantiate advertising claims directly to consumers?” International Journal of Consumer Studies, 10 (1), 21–34.

Anderson, Craig A. (1983), “Abstract and concrete data in the perseverance of social theories: When weak data lead to unshakable beliefs,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19 (2), 93-108.

Anderson, Daniel R. (1985), "Online cognitive processing of television," in L. F. Alwitt & A. A. Mitchell, eds, Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 177-199.

Anderson, Eric T. & Duncan Simester (2003), “Effects of $9 price endings on retail sales: Evidence from field experiments,” Quantitative Marketing and Economics, 1, 93-110.

Anderson, Richard C. & Alice Davison (1988), “Conceptual and empirical bases of readability formulas,” in A. Davison & G. M. Green, Linguistic Complexity and Text Comprehension: Readability Issues Reconsidered. Hillsdale, N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 23-51.

Andreoli, Virginia & Stephen Worchel (1978), “Effects of media, communicator, and message position on attitude change,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 42, 59-70.

Andrews, J. Craig, S. H. Akhter, S. Durvasula & D. D. Meuhling (1992), “The effects of advertising distinctiveness and message content involvement on cognitive and affective responses to advertising,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 14 (1), 45-56.

Antin, Tony (1993), Great Print Advertising. New York: John Wiley.

Areni, Charles S. (2003), “The effects of structural and grammatical variables on persuasion: An elaboration likelihood model perspective,” Psychology and Marketing, 20 (4), 349-375.

Ariely, Dan (1998), “Combining experiences over time: The effects of duration, intensity changes, and on-line measurements on retrospective pain evaluations,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 11, 19-45.

Ariely, Dan (2008), Predictably Irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. London: Harper Collins.

Arkes, Hal R. & Peter Ayton (1999), “The sunk cost and concorde effects: Are humans less rational than lower animals?” Psychological Bulletin, 125, 591-600.

Arkes, Hal R., L. E. Boehm & G. Xu (1991), “Determinants of judged validity,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 576-605.

Arkes, Hal R., C. Hackett & L. Boehm (1989), “The generality of the relation between familiarity and judged validity,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 81-94.

Arkes, Hal R., Victoria A. Shaffer & Robyn M. Dawes (2006), “Comparing holistic and disaggregated ratings in the evaluation of scientific presentations,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 429-439.

Armstrong, J. Scott (1970), “How to avoid exploratory research,” Journal of Advertising Research, 10 (4), 1970, 27-30.

Armstrong, J. Scott (1977), “Social irresponsibility in management,” Journal of Business Research, 5, 185-213.

Armstrong, J. Scott (1980), “Unintelligible management research and academic prestige,” Interfaces, 10 (2), 80-86.

Armstrong, J. Scott (1985), Long-Range Forecasting. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley.

Armstrong, J. Scott (1996), "How should firms select advertising agencies? A review of Randall Rothenberg's Where the Suckers Moon," Journal of Marketing, 60, 131-134.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2001), “Combining forecasts,” in J. S. Armstrong (ed.), Principles of Forecasting. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 417-439.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2003a), “Discovery and communication of important marketing findings: Evidence and proposals,” Journal of Business Research, 56, 69-84.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2003b), “Reaping benefits from management research: Lessons from the forecasting principles project,” Interfaces, 33 (6), 89-111.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2003c), “How to be less persuaded and more persuasive: A review of Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion, by Anthony R. Pratkanis & Elliot Aronson,” Journal of Marketing, 67, 129-130.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2004), “How to improve service quality and satisfaction “or “My boss wants you to like my essays, so please give this a good rating,” ELMAR Essay at

Armstrong, J. Scott (2004), “How to improve service quality and satisfaction “or “My boss wants you to like my essays, so please give this a good rating,” ELMAR Essay at

Armstrong, J. Scott (2006), “How to make better decisions: Avoid face-to-face meetings,” Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting, Issue 3, 10-13.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2007a),"Significance tests harm progress in forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, 23 (2007), 321-327.

Armstrong, J. Scott (2007b), "Statistical significance tests are unnecessary even when properly done and properly interpreted: reply to commentaries," International Journal of Forecasting, 23, 335-336.

Armstrong, J. Scott, R. Brodie & A. Parsons (2001), “Hypotheses in marketing science: Literature review and publication audit,” Marketing Letters, 12, 171-187.

Armstrong, J. Scott & Andreas Graefe (2010), “Predicting elections from biographical information about candidates.” Working paper.

Armstrong, J. Scott & Kesten C. Green (2007), “Competitor-oriented objectives: The myth of market share,” International Journal of Business, 12 , 117-136.

Armstrong, J. Scott, Kesten C. Green & Don Esslemont (2010), “Effects of mandatory disclaimers in advertising,” Working paper.

Armstrong, J. Scott, K. C. Green, R. J. Jones, M. Wright, (2010), "Predicting elections from politicians' faces," Working paper available at

Armstrong, J. Scott & Sandeep Patnaik (2009), “Using quasi-experimental data to develop empirical generalizations for persuasive advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49 (2). 170-175.

Armstrong, J. Scott  & David J. Reibstein (1985), “Evidence on the value of strategic planning in marketing: How much planning should a marketing planner plan?” in H. Thomas & D. Gardner (eds.), Strategic Marketing and Management. New York: John Wiley (1985), pp. 73-87.

Armstrong, J. Scott & Randall L. Schultz (1993), “Principles involving marketing policies: An empirical assessment,” Marketing Letters, 4, 247-253.

Asch, Solomon E. (1956), “Studies of independence and conformity: 1. A minority of one against a unanimous majority,” Psychological Monographs, 70 (9), Whole Number 416, 1-70.

Assael, Henry, John H. Kofron & Walter Burgi (1967), “Advertising performance as a function of print ad characteristics,” Journal of Advertising Research, 7 (2), 20-26.

Assmus, Gert, John U. Farley & Donald R. Lehmann (1984), “How advertising affects sales: Meta-analysis of econometric results,” Journal of Marketing Research, 21, 65-74.

Avorn, Jerry (2004), Powerful Medicines. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Bacon, Frederick T. (1979), "Credibility of repeated statements: Memory for trivia," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5 (3), 241-252.

Baddeley, Alan (1994), “The magical number seven: Still magic after all these years?” Psychological Review, 101 (2), 353-356.

Baker, Chris (1993), Advertising Works 7. Henley-on-Thames: NTC Publications.

Baker, J. Ryan (2005), “Is multiple-column online text better? It depends!” Usability News, 7.2, 8 pages at

Baker, William E. (1999), “When can affective conditioning and mere Glossary Link exposure directly influence brand choice?”  Journal of Advertising, 28, (4), 31-46.

Barnes, James G. (1975), “Factors influencing consumer reaction to retail newspaper ‘sale’ advertising,” American Marketing Association, 471-477.

Barry, Thomas E. & Daniel J. Howard (1990), “A review and critique of the Glossary Link hierarchy of effects in advertising,” International Journal of Advertising, 9, 121-135.

Barry, Thomas E. & Roger L. Tremblay (1975), “ Glossary Link Comparative advertising: Perspectives and issues,” Journal of Advertising, 4 (4), 15-20.

Bartolini, Tony, et al. (1988), “Perceptions of personal characteristics of men and women under three conditions of eyewear,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67, 779-782.

Bateson, Melissa, D. Nettle & G. Roberts (2006), “Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting,” Biology Letters, 2, 412-414.

Batra, Rajeev & Michael L. Ray (1986), “Situational effects of advertising repetition: The moderating influence of motivation, ability, and opportunity to respond,” Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (March), 432-445.

Batson, C. Daniel (1975), “Rational processing on rationalization?: The effect of disconfirming evidence on a stated religious belief,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32 (1), 176-184.

Batson, C. Daniel, et al.  (1999), “Moral hypocrisy: Appearing moral to oneself without being so,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77 (3), 525-537.

Baxt, William G., J. F. Waeckerle, J. A. Berlin & M. L. Callaham (1998), “Who reviews reviewers? Feasibility of using a fictitious manuscript to evaluate peer reviewer performance,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, 32, 310-317.

Beaman, Arthur L. (1991), “An empirical comparison of meta-analytic and traditional reviews,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 252-257.

Beaman, Arthur L. et al. (1983), “Fifteen years of foot-in-the-door research: A meta-analysis,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9 (2), 181-196.

Beard, Fred K. (2008), Humor in the Advertising Business: Theory, Practice, and Wit. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Beltramini, Richard F. & Steven P. Brown (1994), “Miscomprehension and believability of information presented in print advertising,” Advances in Consumer Research, 21, 218-223.

Berger, Warren (2001), Advertising Today. New York: Phaidon Press.

Bergh, Bruce G. Vanden, Leonard N. Reid & Gerald A. Schorin (1983), “How many creative alternatives to generate?” Journal of Advertising, 12, (No. 4), 46-49.

Bergkvist, Lars & John R. Rossiter (2008), “The role of ad likability in predicting an ad’s Glossary Link campaign performance,” Journal of Advertising, 37 (2), 85-97.

Bernard, Michael, M. Fernandez & S. Hull (2002), “The effects of line length on children and adults’ online reading performance,” Usability News, 4.2, 8 pages at

Bever, Thomas G. et al. (1990), "Spacing printed text to isolate major phrases improves readability," Visible Language, 25 (1), 74-87.

Binet, Les (2006), Advertising Works 14. Henley-on-Thames, UK: World Advertising Research Center.

Bizer, George Y. & Robert M. Schindler (2005), "Direct evidence of ending-digit drop-off in price information processing," Psychology & Marketing, 22 (10), 771-783.

Blair, Edward A. & E. L. Landon, Jr. (1981), “The effects of reference prices in retail advertisements,” Journal of Marketing, 45, 61-69.

Blair, M. Elizabeth & Douglas E. Innis (1996), “The effects of product knowledge on the evaluation of warranted brands,” Psychology and Marketing, 13, 445-456.

Blasko, Vincent J. (1985), “A content analysis of the creative characteristics of outdoor advertising: National vs. regional differences,” in Nancy Stephens (ed.), Proceedings of the 1985 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising. College of Business, Arizona State University, R17-R22.

Blass, Thomas (1991), “Understanding behavior in the Milgram obedience experiment: The role of personality, situations, and their interactions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 398-413.

Blass, Thomas (1999), “The Milgram paradigm after 35 years: Some things we now know about obedience to authority,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 955-978.

Boehm, Lawrence E. (1994), “The validity effect: A search for mediating variables,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 285-293.

Bolls, Paul D. & Darrel D. Muehling (2003), “The effects of television commercial pacing on viewers’ attention and memory,” Journal of Marketing Communications, 9 (1), 17-28.

Boninger, David S. et al. (1990), “Discovery of reliable attitude change persistence resulting from a transmitter tuning set,” Psychological Science, 1, 268-271.

Booth-Butterfield, Steve & Jennifer Welbourne (2002), “The elaboration likelihood model: Its impact on presuasion theory and research,” in James P. Dillard & Michael Pfau (eds.), The Persuasive Handbook. London, U.K.: Sage Publications, pp. 155-173.

Bornstein, Robert F. (1989), “Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research, 1968-1987,” Psychological Bulletin, 106, 265-289.

Bornstein, Robert F. & Catherine Carver-Lemley (2004), “Mere exposure effect,” in R. Pohl (ed.), Cognitive Illusions, East Sussex, U.K.: Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press, pp. 215-233.

Bower, Amanda B. & Stacy Landreth (2001), “Is beauty best? Highly versus normally attractive models in advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 30, (1), 1-12.

Bradley, Samuel D. & Robert Meeds (2002), “Surface-structure transformations and advertising slogans: The case for moderate syntactic complexity,” Psychology and Marketing, 19, 595-619.

Brannon, Laura A. & Timothy C. Brock (2001), “Limiting time for responding enhances behavior corresponding to the merits of compliance appeals: Refutations of heuristic-cue theory in service and consumer settings,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10 (3), 135-146.

Brase, Gary L. (2002), “Which statistical formats facilitate what decisions? The perception and influence of different statistical information formats,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15, 381-401.

Bretl, Daniel J. & Joanne Cantor (1988), “The portrayal of men and women in U. S. television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years,” Sex Roles, 18, 595-609.

Briggs, Robert O., Nunamaker, J. F. Jr. & Sprague, R. H. Jr. (1997), “1001 unanswered research questions in GSS,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 14 (3), 3-21.

Broadbent, Tim (2000), Advertising Works 11. World Advertising Research Center.

Brock, Timothy C. (1965), "Communicator-recipient similarity and decision change," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 650-654.

Broeder, D. (1959), “The University of Chicago jury project,” Nebraska Law Review, 38, 744-760.

Brownlow, Sheila & Leslie A. Zebowitz (1990), “Facial appearance, gender, and credibility in television commercials,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 14 (1), 51-60.

Bruner, Gordon C. II (1990), “Music, mood, and marketing,” Journal of Marketing, 54, 94-104.

Burger, Jerry M. (1986), “Increasing compliance by improving the deal: The that's-not-all technique,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 277-283.

Burger, Jerry M., M. Reed, K. DeCesare, S. Rauner & J. Rozolis (1999), “The effects of initial request size on compliance: More about the that’s-not-all technique,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 243-249.

Burnkrant, Robert E. & H. Rao Unnava (1989), “Self-referencing: A strategy for increasing processing of message content,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 628-638.

Burns, Alvin C., Abhijt Biswas & Laurie A. Babin (1993), “The operation of visual imagery as a mediator of advertising effects,” Journal of Advertising, 22 (2), 71-85.

Burrell, N. A. & Koper, R. J. (1998). “The efficacy of powerful/powerless language on attitudes and source credibility,” In M. Allen & R. W. Preiss (Eds.), Persuasion: Advances Through Meta-Analyses (pp. 203-215). Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Burton, Philip Ward & Scott C. Purvis (Editions 5 in 1987 through Edition 9 in 2002), Which Ad Pulled Best? Chicago, Illinois: Crain Books.

Bushman, Brad J. (2005), “Violence and sex in television programs do not sell products in advertisements,” Psychological Science, 16, 702-708.

Bushman, Brad J. & Angelica M. Bonacci (2002), “Violence and sex impair memory for television ads,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 557-563.

Bushman, Brad J. & Angela D. Stack (1996), “Forbidden fruit versus tainted fruit: Effects of warning labels on attraction to television violence," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 207-226.

Business Strategy Review (2005), “Business heroes – David Ogilvy: The father of modern advertising,” 16 (1), 76-78.

Cacioppo. John T. & Richard E. Petty (1989), “Effects of message repetition on argument processing, Glossary Link recall and persuasion,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 10 (1), 3-12.

Caples, John & Fred E. Hahn (1998), Tested Advertising Methods, 5th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. (The original edition, by Caples, was published in 1932. It provides principles developed from hundreds of direct mail experiments. Unfortunately, it does not provide details.)

Capon, Noel & Deanna Kuhn (1982), “Can customers calculate best buys?” Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 449-453.

Carducci, Bernado J., et al. (1989), “An application of the foot-in-the-door technique to organ donation,” Journal of Business and Psychology, 4, 245-249.

Catanescu, Codruta & Gail Tom (2001), “Types of humor in television and magazine advertising,” Review of Business (Summer), 22 (2), 92-95.

Chaiken, Shelly & Alice H. Eagly (1976), “Communication modality as a determinant of message persuasiveness and message comprehensibility,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 605-614.

Chamblee, Robert & Dennis M. Sandler (1992), “Business-to-business advertising: Which Glossary Link layout style works best?" Journal of Advertising Research, 32 (Nov/Dec), 39-46.

Chandrashekaran, Rajesh & Dhrur Grewal (2003), “Assimilation of advertised reference prices: The moderating role of involvement,” Journal of Retailing, 79, 53-62.

Chandy, Rajesh, K. G. J. Tellis, D. J. MacInnis, & P. Thaivanich (2001), “What to say when: Advertising appeals in evolving markets” Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 399-414.

Chapman, Loren J. & J. P. Chapman (1969), “Illusory Glossary Link correlation as an obstacle to the use of valid psychodiagnostic signs,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 271-280.

Chattopadhyay, Amitava & Kanul Basu (1990), “Humor in advertising: The moderating role of prior brand evaluation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 27, 466-476.

Chebat, Jean-Charles, C. Gélinas-Chebat, S. Hombouger & A. G. Woodside (2003), “Testing consumers’ motivation and linguistic ability as moderators of advertising readability,” Psychology and Marketing, 20, 599-624.

Chebat, Jean-Charles, M. Charlebois & C. Gélinas-Chebat (2001), “What makes open vs. closed conclusion advertisement more persuasive? The moderating role of prior knowledge and involvement,” Journal of Business Research, 53, 93-102.

Childers, Terry L. & Michael J. Houston (1984), “Conditions for a picture-superiority effect on consumer memory,” Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 643-654.

Chinander, Karen R. & Maurice E. Schweitzer (2003), “The input bias: The misuse of input information in judgments of outcomes,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 91, 243-253.

Chisholm, J. (1995), “Does color make a difference?” Admap, December, 17-21.

Chou, Linly, George R. Franke & Gary B. Wilcox (1987), “The information content of comparative magazine ads: A longitudinal analysis,” Journalism Quarterly, 64 (1), 119-124, 250.

Cialdini, Robert B. (2009), Influence: Science and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. (This book, originally published in 1984, is often updated.)

Cialdini, Robert B. & David A. Schroeder (1976), “Increasing compliance by legitimizing paltry contributions: When even a penny helps,”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 599-604.

Cioffi, D. & R. Garner (1996), “On doing the decision: The effects of active versus passive choice on commitment and self-perception,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 (2), 133-147.

Clee, Mona A. & Robert A. Wicklund (1980), “Consumer behavior and psychological reactance,” Journal of Consumer Research, 6, 389-405.

Cline, Thomas W. & James J. Kellaris (1999) “The joint impact of humor and argument strength in a print advertising context: A case for weaker arguments” Psychology and Marketing, 16 (1), 69-86.

Cline, Thomas W. &James J. Kellaris (2007), “The influence of humor strength and humor-message relatedness on ad memorability: A dual process model,” Journal of Advertising, 36 (1), 55-67.

Cohen, Dorothy (1972), “Surrogate indicators and deception in advertising,” Journal of Marketing, 36, 10-15.

Cole, Catherine A., Nadine M. Castellano & Donald Schum (1995), “Quantitative and qualitative differences on older and younger consumers’ recall of radio advertising,” Advances in Consumer Research, 22, 617-621.

Compeau, Larry D., Dhruv Grewal & Rajesh Chandrashekaran (2002), “Comparative price advertising: Believe it or not,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36, 284-294.

Compeau, Larry D., Dhruv Grewal & Diana S. Grewal (2001), “Adjudicating claims of deceptive advertised reference prices: The use of empirical evidence,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 14, 312-318.

Coney, Kenneth A. & Charles H. Patti (1979), “Advertisers’ responses to requests for substantiation of product claims: Differences by product category, type of claim and advertising medium,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 13, 224-235.

Connolly, Terry, Leonard M. Jessup & Joseph S. Valacich (1990), “Effects of anonymity and evaluative tone on idea generation in computer-mediated groups,” Management Science, 36, 689-703.

Cook, William A. & Theodore F. Dunn (1996), “The changing face of advertising research in the information age: An ARF Glossary Link copy research council survey,” Journal of Advertising Research, 36 (1), 55-71.

Cooper, Joel, Elizabeth A. Bennett & Holly L. Sukel (1996), “Complex scientific testimony: How do jurors make decisions?” Law and Human Behavior, 20, 379-394.

Cooper, Michael (1984), “Can celebrities really sell products?”Marketing & Media Decisions, 120 (September), 64-65.

Corfman, Kim P. & Donald R. Lehmann (1994), “The prisoner’s dilemma and the role of information in setting advertising budgets,” Journal of Advertising, 23 (2), 35-48.

Cotte, June, Robin A. Coulter & Melissa Moore (2005), “Enhancing or disrupting guilt: The role of ad credibility and perceived manipulative intent,” Journal of Business Research, 58, 361-368.

Cutler, Bob, D. Rajshekhar & G. Javalgi (1992), “The visual components of print advertising: A five-country cross-cultural analysis,” European Journal of Marketing, 26 (4), 7-20.  [check ref]

Cutler, Bob D. & Rajshekhar G. Javalgi (1993), “Analysis of print ad features: Services versus products,” Journal of Advertising Research, 33 (March/April), 62-69.

Dana, Jason & Dawes, Robyn M. (2004). The superiority of simple alternatives to regression for social science predictions, Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29, 317-331.

Darke, Peter R. & Cindy M. Y. Chung (2005), “Effects of pricing and promotion on consumer perceptions: It depends on how you frame it,” Journal of Retailing, 81, 35-47.

Darke, Peter R. & Jonathan L. Freedman (1993), “Deciding whether to seek a bargain: Effects of both amount and percentage off,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 960-965.

Darke, Peter R., Jonathan L. Freedman & Shelly Chaiken (1995), “Percentage discounts, initial price, and bargain hunting: A heuristic-systematic approach to price search behavior,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 580-586.

Davis, Barbara P. & Eric S. Knowles (1999), “A disrupt-then-reframe technique of social influence,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 192-199.

Dawson, Neil (2009), Advertising Works 17: Proving the Payback on Marketing Investment. UK: World Advertising Research Center.

Dean, Dwane H. & Abhijit Biswas (2001), “Third-party organization endorsement of products: An advertising cue affecting consumer prepurchase evaluation of goods and services,” Journal of Advertising, 30 (4), 41-57.

Deaner, Robert O., Amit V. Khera & Michael L.Platt (2005), “Monkeys pay per view: Adaptive valuation of social images by rhesus macaques,” Current Biology, 15, 543-548.

DeJong, William & Arvo J. Oopik (1992), “Effects of legitimizing small contributions and labeling potential donors as “helpers” on responses to a direct mail solicitation for charity,” Psychological Reports, 71 (3), 913-928.

Della Bitta, Albert J., Kent B. Monroe & John M. McGinnis (1981), “Consumer perceptions of comparative price advertisements,” Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (4), 416-427.

DeSanctis, Geradine (1984), “Computer graphics as decision aids: Directions for research,” Decision Sciences, 15, 463-487.

Diamond, Daniel S. (1968), “A quantitative approach to magazine advertisement format selection,” Journal of Marketing Research, 5, 376-386.

Dickerson, Chris. A., R. Thibodeau, E. Aronson & D. Miller (1992), “Using Glossary Link cognitive dissonance to encourage water conservation,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22 , 841-854.

Dickson, Peter R. & Alan G. Sawyer (1990), “The price knowledge and search of supermarket shoppers,” Journal of Marketing, 54 (July), 42-53.

Diehl, Michael & Wolfgang Stroebe (1987), “Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: Toward the solution of a riddle,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 497-509.

Dillard, James P. (1991), “The current status of research on sequential-request compliance techniques,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 283-288.

Dillard, James P. & Michael Pfau (2002), The Persuasion Handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Diller, Hermann & Andreas Brielmaier (1995), “The impact of rounding-up odd prices: Results of a field experiment in German drugstores,” Pricing Strategy & Practice, 3 (4), 4-13.

Dillman, Don (2000), Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. New York: John Wiley.

Dobrow, Larry (1984), When Advertising Tried Harder. New York: Friendly Press.

Dodge, H. Robert & Sam Fullerton (1984), “Copy length across the product life cycle,” in Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 7 (1) 149-158.

Dolinski, Dariusz & Richard Nawrat (1998), “‘Fear-then-relief’ procedure for producing compliance: Beware when the danger is over,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 27-50.

Donath, Bob (1982), "Measuring bang in marketing buck: How General Electric predicts marketing productivity," Industrial Marketing, 67 (7), 60-64.

Donthu, N., J. Cherian & M. Bhargava (1993), “Factors influencing recall of outdoor advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 33 (3), 64-72.

Doob, Anthony N., et al. (1969), “Effect of initial selling price on subsequent sales,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 345-350.

Duckworth, Gary (1997), Advertising Works 9. Henley-on-Thames: NTC Publications.

Dyson, Mary C. & Mark Haselgrove (2001), “The influence of reading speed and line length on the effectiveness of reading from screen,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54, 585-612.

Eagly, Alice H., R. D. Ashmore, M. G. Makhijani& L. C. Longo (1991), “What is beautiful is good, but …: A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype," Psychological Bulletin, 110 , 109-128.

Edell, Julie A. & Richard Staelin (1983), “The information processing of pictures in print advertisements” Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (June), 45-61.

Ehrlich, E. (1963), “Opinions differ on speed reading,” National Education Association Journal, 52, 45-46.

Eisend, Martin (2009), “A meta-analysis of humor in advertising,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37, 191-203.

Ellen, Pam S., Lois A. Mohr & Deborah J. Webb (2000), “Charitable programs and the retailer: Do they mix?” Journal of Retailing, 76, 393-406.

Elliot, Andrew J. & Daniela Niesta (2008), “Romantic red: Red enhances men’s attraction to women,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1150-1164.

Elpers, Josephine Woltman, Michael Wedel & Rik G. M. Pieters (2003), “Why do consumers stop viewing television commercials? Two experiments on the influence of moment-to-moment entertainment and information value,” Journal of Marketing Research, 40, 437-453.

Engstrom, Erika (1994), “Effects of nonfluencies on speaker’s credibility in newscast settings,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 739-743.

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